Heart Diseases Involving the Valves and CABG
Heart diseases are on the rise. You can see many hospitals in India treat the heart diseases. Here is a look at the common heart ailments.
Coronary artery bypass surgery
This procedure is also known as the coronary artery bypass graft. In short, we call this CABG. In this, the blood flow gets restored to an obstructed coronary artery. The coronary artery transports blood directly to and from the heart and not through the circulatory system. Of the two main approaches, in one the internal mammary artery gets diverted to the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery.
The other method is more popular. Here a great saphenous vein gets removed from the leg of the patient. This they use to connect the aorta to the obstructed artery immediately after the obstruction. If medication is not enough to relieve angina, then they do the CABG. This offsets the risk of death. You will get good treatment from the best cardiology hospital in India.
In the normal course, the heart gets stopped and they use a cardiopulmonary bypass. There are other means of performing this surgery. They use off-pump surgery method on a beating heart without any cardiopulmonary bypass. Another method is to perform the on-pump method where you have a partial help of a cardiopulmonary bypass. CABG remains indicated when the amount of obstruction is 50-99%.
Valvular heart diseases
This kind of disease happens when the valve does not close or allows too much blood to flow through. We have four valves in our heart. The diseases that involve the tricuspid and pulmonary valves we call as right heart disease. Those that involve the other two, namely mitral and aortic valve we call as the left heart disease. We name the heart disease according to the valve that it affects. So we have the following:
- Mitral insufficiency or regurgitation
- Pulmonary insufficiency or regurgitation
- Aortic insufficiency or regurgitation
- Tricuspid valve or regurgitation
The left heart diseases are more prevalent because the left heart experiences higher pressures. You have a thickening of the valvular annulus that limits the flow of blood which should leave the left ventricle and enter the aorta. This leads to the stenosis of the aortic valve. This problem might occur as a deformity at birth itself or due to valvular calcification. Aortic insufficiency in most cases remains idiopathic. Disorders of the immune system or connective tissue may result in this disease.
Stenosis of the tricuspid valve
Tricuspid valve stenosis does not usually happen and when it does there is regurgitation. Rheumatic diseases are the common cause of this disease. Minor tricuspid insufficiency is present in many healthy individuals. You can get cardiology treatment in India at most of the metropolitan cities.
Pulmonary valve stenosis is due to congenital malformations. It may result from Noonan syndrome congenital Rubella syndrome or Tetralogy of Fallot. Usually, the prognosis of this stenosis is quite good. Often, the patients can go through to adulthood and only need treatment when calcification occurs due to old age. Pulmonary valve insufficiency is a common occurrence and does not need any intervention. This could happen due to the damage to the valve that results from aortic balloon pump insertion or cardiac catheterization.